I think I have answered my own question.
The answer is yes, it is possible. The way I achieved this was to;
1. Set up another module with the numbered list I want to filter as a dimension and a number of line items with formulas referencing the properties.
2. In the list I am trying to filter I filtered based on the module and the line item(s) I have just set up in step 1.
Result: Anaplan now displays the filtered entries only according to the criteria I set in step 2.
It would appear that Anaplan does not permit the filtering of lists directly, but if someone has a more elegant way of enabling filtering of lists I would be interested to hear.