what one need to remember about time on chart: a chart can only show items that existed when first published. And then you can narrow it down with a filter. So yes, publish your graph from a view with a filter, first with the filter showing all periods, then change the values of that filter.
Step 1 - Apply a filter (preferably boolean) to a module and save this view. This Filter should include all the time periods before you publish the graph on to the dashboard (Keep it TRUE for all time periods).
Step 2 - Create a chart based on the saved view that you create in Step 1
Step 3 - Publish the chart on to the dashboard
Step 4 - Write the logic for your filter that you had used in creating saved view of Step 1
However one thing to note - you can not exceed more than 200 items across any axis. For example if you want to see weekly graph for next 4 years or daily graph for one year - that might not work in such cases.